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Decoding Mounjaro vs. Ozempic: Unveiling the Differences in GLP-1 RAs for Type 2 Diabetes

Decoding Mounjaro vs. Ozempic: Unveiling the Differences in GLP-1 RAs for Type 2 Diabetes

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Decoding Mounjaro vs. Ozempic: Unveiling the Differences in GLP-1 RAs for Type 2 Diabetes

Introduction 

Mounjaro (Tirzepatide) and Ozempic (semaglutide) are both medications used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. They belong to a class of drugs called glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and work by increasing insulin secretion, reducing glucagon production, and slowing down gastric emptying.

While both Mounjaro (tirzepatide) and Ozempic (semaglutide) are effective in lowering blood sugar levels, there are some differences between the two. Tirzepatide is a newer medication that is currently being studied in clinical trials. It has shown promising results in terms of glycemic control and weight loss in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Semaglutide, on the other hand, has been available on the market for a longer time and has been extensively studied. It has been shown to effectively reduce HbA1c levels, promote weight loss, and lower the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes.

It is important to note that the choice between tirzepatide and semaglutide should be made in consultation with a healthcare professional. Factors such as individual patient characteristics, medical history, and treatment goals should be taken into consideration when determining the most appropriate medication for a patient with type 2 diabetes.

 

Mechanism of action of mounjaro and Ozempic 

Mounjaro

Mounjaro ( Tirzepatide) works by mimicking the actions of the hormone GLP-1 in the body. GLP-1 is responsible for regulating blood sugar levels and appetite. By activating GLP-1 receptors, tirzepatide helps to lower blood glucose levels by stimulating insulin secretion, reducing glucagon secretion (which helps to decrease the production of glucose in the liver), and slowing down gastric emptying.

What sets tirzepatide apart from other GLP-1 RAs is its unique dual mechanism of action. It combines the actions of GLP-1 receptor agonism with a glucagon receptor antagonist, which further contributes to its ability to regulate blood sugar.

This dual approach may offer potential benefits such as better glycemic control, improved weight management, and minimized risk of hypoglycemia compared to existing medications.

 

Ozempic 

Ozempic (Semaglutide) is a medication belonging to the class of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) that is used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is an injectable drug that helps regulate blood sugar levels and can be administered once a week.

As a GLP-1 RA, semaglutide works by mimicking the actions of the hormone GLP-1 in the body. GLP-1 plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels by stimulating insulin secretion, reducing glucagon secretion, and slowing down gastric emptying. By activating GLP-1 receptors, semaglutide helps lower blood sugar and can assist in weight management.

One distinctive feature of semaglutide is its long half-life, allowing for once-weekly dosing. This can improve convenience and adherence to treatment. The medication has been shown to effectively reduce HbA1c levels (a measure of average blood glucose levels over time), both as a stand-alone therapy or in combination with other anti-diabetic medications. Semaglutide has also demonstrated the potential for weight loss in patients with type 2 diabetes

 

They role in weight loss 

 Mounjaro (Tirzepatide) in weight loss

Tirzepatide facilitates weight loss through its mechanism of action as a dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist. Here’s how it exerts its effects:

  1. Appetite control: Tirzepatide acts on the hypothalamus, a part of the brain involved in appetite regulation. By stimulating the GLP-1 and GIP receptors, it helps suppress appetite, leading to reduced food intake and calorie consumption.
  2. Glucose regulation: Tirzepatide enhances insulin secretion and promotes its effectiveness in lowering blood sugar levels. By improving glucose control, it helps prevent excessive sugar fluctuations that can contribute to weight gain and increased food cravings.
  3. Slowing gastric emptying: Tirzepatide slows down the emptying of the stomach, leading to increased feelings of fullness and satiety. This can reduce overeating and promote portion control, contributing to weight loss.
  4. Energy expenditure: Tirzepatide has been shown to increase energy expenditure, which means it helps the body burn more calories. This effect can further support weight loss efforts.

 

Ozempic (Semaglutide) in weight loss

Ozempic (Semaglutide) is a medication that has shown promise in facilitating weight loss. Initially developed as a treatment for type 2 diabetes, clinical trials have found it to be effective in promoting weight loss in individuals with obesity, even in the absence of diabetes. Here’s how semaglutide works and its effects on weight loss:

  1. GLP-1 receptor agonist: Semaglutide belongs to a class of drugs called GLP-1 receptor agonists. It mimics the action of a hormone called glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the body. GLP-1 regulates appetite, glucose metabolism, and insulin release.
  2. Appetite control: Semaglutide acts on the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and reduce food cravings. By stimulating GLP-1 receptors, it signals a feeling of fullness or satiety, leading to a decrease in calorie intake.
  3. Glucose regulation: Semaglutide helps regulate blood sugar levels by increasing insulin secretion and reducing the production of glucagon, a hormone that raises blood sugar. This can prevent excessive sugar fluctuations and cravings that may contribute to weight gain.
  4. Gastric emptying: Semaglutide slows down gastric emptying, meaning food stays in the stomach for longer periods. This increases satiety and reduces the tendency to overeat.

 

Side effects 

Side effects of mounjaro (tirzepatide)

  1. Gastrointestinal issues: These may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. These side effects are usually mild to moderate and tend to improve over time.
  2. Hypoglycemia: Tirzepatide can lower blood sugar levels, which may lead to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). Symptoms of hypoglycemia can include dizziness, shakiness, sweating, confusion, and headache. It is important to monitor blood sugar levels regularly and be aware of the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia.
  3. Injection site reactions: Some individuals may experience redness, itching, or swelling at the injection site. These reactions are usually mild and resolve on their own.
  4. Thyroid tumors: In animal studies, tirzepatide has been associated with an increased risk of thyroid tumors. However, the relevance of this finding to humans is still being evaluated.

 

Side effects of Ozempic ( Semaglutide)

  1. Nausea: Some individuals may experience feelings of nausea, which can range from mild to moderate. This side effect often improves over time as the body adjusts to the medication.
  2. Vomiting: In some cases, semaglutide may cause vomiting. If this occurs, it is advisable to consult a healthcare professional for further guidance.
  3. Diarrhea: Semaglutide may lead to loose stools or diarrhea in some individuals. Staying hydrated and maintaining a balanced diet can help manage this side effect.
  4. Decreased appetite: Some people may experience a decrease in appetite while taking semaglutide. This can contribute to weight loss, which may be a desired effect for some individuals.
  5. Injection site reactions: As semaglutide is administered via subcutaneous injection, there may be localized reactions at the injection site, such as redness, swelling, or itching. Rotating injection sites and proper injection technique can help minimize these reactions.

 

FAQs:

Are Mounjaro and Ozempic in the same drug class?

Yes, both Mounjaro(tirzepatide) and Ozempic(semaglutide)belong to the same drug class known as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs)

Who shouldn’t take Mounjaro or Ozempic?

Generally, individuals who have a history of hypersensitivity or allergic reactions to tirzepatide, semaglutide, or any of their components should not take these medications. Additionally, individuals with a history of medullary thyroid carcinoma or multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2 should avoid semaglutide. It is crucial to discuss your medical history and any potential contraindications with your healthcare provider before starting any new medication

 

References:

  1. Tirzepatide, a New Era of Dual-Targeted Treatment for Diabetes and Obesity: A Mini-Review

  2. Tirzepatide Once Weekly for the Treatment of Obesity

  3. Wegovy (semaglutide): a new weight loss drug for chronic weight management

 

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